Burundi Population: 11,099,298

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 History
Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that integrated defense forces, and established a new constitution and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The government of President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, who was reelected in 2010 and again in a disputed election in 2015, continues to face many political and economic challenges.

 Geography
Landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
Location: Central Africa, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E
Area: total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,680 sq km
water: 2,150 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 1,140 km border countries (3): Democratic Republic of the Congo 236 km, Rwanda 315 km, Tanzania 589 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land use: agricultural land: 73.3% arable land 38.9%; permanent crops 15.6%; permanent pasture 18.8% forest: 6.6%
other: 20.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 230 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding; landslides; drought
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Languages: Kirundi 29.7% (official), Kirundi and other language 9.1%, French (official) and French and other language 0.3%, Swahili and Swahili and other language 0.2% (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area), English and English and other language 0.06%, more than 2 languages 3.7%, unspecified 56.9% (2008 est.)
Religions: Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%, other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008 est.)
Population: 11,099,298 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.61% (male 2,545,895/female 2,516,480)
15-24 years: 19.17% (male 1,061,538/female 1,066,581)
25-54 years: 28.71% (male 1,589,506/female 1,597,081)
55-64 years: 3.94% (male 205,538/female 231,317)
65 years and over: 2.57% (male 121,935/female 163,427) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 89.7%
youth dependency ratio: 85%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7%
potential support ratio: 21.3% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.26% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 41.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 12.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BUJUMBURA (capital) 751,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.3 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 712 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 60.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 66.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.5 years male: 58.8 years
female: 62.3 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 21.9% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 7.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density: 1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91.1% of population
rural: 73.8% of population
total: 75.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8.9% of population
rural: 26.2% of population
total: 24.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 43.8% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 48% of population

unimproved:
urban: 56.2% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 52% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.04% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 77,400 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.1% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 29.1% (2011)
Education expenditures: 5.4% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.6%
male: 88.2%
female: 83.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2013)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi
etymology: name derived from the pre-colonial Kingdom of Burundi (17th-19th century)
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Bujumbura
geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rumonge, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution: several previous; latest ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Gaston SINDIMWO (since 20 August 2015); Second Vice President Joseph BUTORE (since 20 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Prosper BAZOMBAZA (since 13 February 2014); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI (since 29 August 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 July 2015(next to be held in 2020); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament

election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (National Liberation Forces) 19%, other 11.6%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Inama Nkenguzamateka (49 seats in the July 2015 election; 34 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three-round voting system which requires a two-thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and a simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 4 seats reserved for former heads of state, 3 seats reserved for Twas, and 8 seats for women; members serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Inama Nshingamateka (121 seats in the June 2015 election; 100 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 21 co-opted members – 3 Twas and 18 women; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 24 July 2015 (next to be held in 2019); National Assembly - last held on 29 June 2015 (next to be held on 2020)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 30, FRODEBU 3, CNDD 1, and 4 seats reserved for heads of state, 3 seats for Twas, and 8 seats for women; National Assembly - percent of vote by party (preliminary results) - CNDD-FDD 60.3%, Burundians' Hope Independent 11.2% UPRONA 2.5%, other 26%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 77, Burundians' Hope Independent 21, UPRONA 2, seats for women 18, seats for Twas 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials), appointed by the president, and confirmed by the Senate; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate and serve 6-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence; Martial Court; Court Against Corruption; Commercial Court
Political parties and leaders: Front for Democracy in Burundi or FRODEBU National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Pascal NYABENDA] National Liberation Forces or FNL [Agathon RWASA] National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA] National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI] Party for National Redress or PARENA [Zenon NIMU BONA] Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA
Political pressure groups and leaders: Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization) other: Hutu and Tutsi militias
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CEPGL, CICA, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion; national colors: red, white, green
National anthem: name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO

note: adopted 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ernest NDABASHINZE (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 408, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anne S. CASPER (since 2016)
embassy: Avenue Des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B.P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 22-207-000
FAX: [257] 22-222-926
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 Economy
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. Agriculture accounts for over 40% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. Thus, Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rest primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices, although exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi is heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors. Foreign aid in 2014 represented 42% of Burundi's national income, the second highest rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Burundi joined the East African Community (EAC) in 2009. An ethnic war that ended in 2005 resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Political stability, aid flows, and economic activity improved following the end of the civil war, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, overburdened utilities, and low administrative capacity – have prevented the government from implementing planned economic reforms. Government corruption has also hindered the development of a private sector as companies have to deal with ever changing rules. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept pace with inflation. In 2015, Burundi’s economy suffered from political turmoil over President NKURUNZIZA’s controversial third term. Blocked transportation routes disrupted the flow of agricultural goods. And donors withdrew aid, increasing Burundi’s budget deficit. When the unrest ends, regional infrastructure improvements driven by the EAC and funded by the World Bank may help improve Burundi’s transport connections and lower transportation costs.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $7.892 billion (2016 est.) $7.933 billion (2015 est.) $8.259 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.742 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -0.5% (2016 est.) -4% (2015 est.) 4.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $800 (2016 est.) $800 (2015 est.) $900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: -0.1% of GDP (2016 est.) -4.9% of GDP (2015 est.) -2.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 92.4%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.3%
investment in inventories: -8.1%
exports of goods and services: 7.5%
imports of goods and services: -32.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 92.4%
government consumption: 16.5%
investment in fixed capital: 24.3%
investment in inventories: -8.1%
exports of goods and services: 7.5%
imports of goods and services: -32.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc, tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Industries: light consumer goods (blankets, shoes, soap, beer); assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 5.255 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 68% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 28% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.4 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $525.1 million
expenditures: $656.9 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 43.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 39.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2016 est.) 5.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$127 million (2016 est.) -$455 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $132.4 million (2016 est.) $119.6 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners: Germany 12.3%, Pakistan 10.7%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 10.7%, Uganda 8.1%, Sweden 7.8%, US 7.1%, Belgium 6.3%, Rwanda 4.6%, France 4.4% (2015)
Imports: $683.4 million (2016 est.) $800.1 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Kenya 15%, Saudi Arabia 14%, Belgium 9.9%, Tanzania 8.3%, Uganda 7.3%, China 7.1%, India 4.9%, France 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $100.2 million (31 December 2016 est.) $136.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $705.2 million (31 December 2016 est.) $684.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar - 1,665 (2016 est.) 1,571.9 (2015 est.) 1,571.9 (2014 est.) 1,546.7 (2013 est.) 1,442.51 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 400 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 66,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 98.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,636 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 4.998 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays

domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage has increased to roughly 45 per 100 persons

international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-controlled La Radiodiffusion et Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates the lone TV station and the only national radio network; about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bu (2007)
Internet country code: .bi
Internet users: total: 523,000 percent of population: 4.9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Roadways: total 12,322 km
paved: 1,286 km
unpaved: 11,036 km (2004)
Waterways: (mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2011)
Ports and terminals: lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)
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 Military
Military branches: National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, Air Wing), National Gendarmerie (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement age 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), and 55 (officers) (2012)
Military expenditures: 2.39% of GDP (2012) NA% (2011) 2.39% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 54,932 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016) IDPs: 57,926 (some ethnic Tutsis remain displaced from intercommunal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; violence since April 2015 has caused internal displacement, but exact figures are unknown because of insecurity and fear of reprisal attacks for self-identification as an IDP) (2016)
stateless persons: 1,302 (2015)
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