Dominica Population: 73,757

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 History
Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be colonized by Europeans due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763, which colonized the island in 1805. In 1980, two years after independence, Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and tyrannical administration was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia CHARLES, the first female prime minister in the Caribbean, who remained in office for 15 years. Some 3,000 Carib Indians still living on Dominica are the only pre-Columbian population remaining in the eastern Caribbean.

 Geography
Known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake in the world
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about halfway between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates: 15 25 N, 61 20 W
Area: total: 751 sq km
land: 751 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 148 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall
Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: timber, hydropower, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 34.7% arable land 8%; permanent crops 24%; permanent pasture 2.7% forest: 59.2%
other: 6.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican
Ethnic groups: black 86.6%, mixed 9.1%, indigenous 2.9%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2001 est.)
Languages: English (official), French patois
Religions: Roman Catholic 61.4%, Protestant 28.6% (includes Evangelical 6.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.1%, Pentecostal 5.6%, Baptist 4.1%, Methodist 3.7%, Church of God 1.2%, other 1.2%), Rastafarian 1.3%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 0.3%, none 6.1%, unspecified 1.1% (2001 est.)
Population: 73,757 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.84% (male 8,239/female 7,871)
15-24 years: 15.7% (male 5,960/female 5,618)
25-54 years: 41.97% (male 15,693/female 15,264)
55-64 years: 9.6% (male 3,787/female 3,294)
65 years and over: 10.89% (male 3,561/female 4,470) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 33 years
male: 32.5 years
female: 33.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.2% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 15.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -5.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 69.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ROSEAU (capital) 15,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77 years male: 74 years
female: 80.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density: 3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 79.6% of population
rural: 84.3% of population
total: 81.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 20.4% of population
rural: 15.7% of population
total: 18.9% of population (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 25.9% (2014)
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica
etymology: the island was named by explorer Christopher COLUMBUS for the day of the week on which he spotted it, Sunday ("Domingo" in Latin), 3 November 1493
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Roseau
geographic coordinates: 15 18 N, 61 24 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter
Independence: 3 November 1978 (from the UK)
National holiday: Emancipation Day (First Monday), celebrated on first Monday in August (1834); Independence Day, 3 November (1978)
Constitution: previous 1967 (preindependence); latest presented 25 July 1978, entered into force 3 November 1978; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: common law based on the English model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Charles A. SAVARIN (since 2 October 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 January 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: president nominated by the prime minister and leader of the opposition party and elected by the House of Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 September 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Charles A. SAVARIN (DLP) elected president by a vote of 19-0 on 30 September 2013
Legislative branch: description: unicameral House of Assembly (32 seats; 21 representatives directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 9 senators appointed by the Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the House Speaker and the Clerk of the House; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 December 2014 (next to be held in 2019); note - tradition dictates that the election is held within five years of the last election, but technically it is five years from the first seating of parliament plus a 90-day grace period

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DLP 15, UWP 6
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Dominica; the ECSC - based on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside in Dominica; note - Dominica is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, an independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: Court of Summary Jurisdiction; magistrates' courts
Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Judith PESTAINA] Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT] Dominica United Workers Party or UWP [Hector JOHN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, Commonwealth of Nations, ECCU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Sisserou parrot, Carib Wood flower; national colors: green, yellow, black, white, red
National anthem: name: "Isle of Beauty"
lyrics/music: Wilfred Oscar Morgan POND/Lemuel McPherson CHRISTIAN

note: adopted 1967
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hubert J. CHARLES (since 16 July 2010)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Dominica; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Dominica
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 Economy
The Dominican economy has been dependent on agriculture - primarily bananas - in years past, but increasingly has been driven by tourism as the government seeks to promote Dominica as an "ecotourism" destination. Moreover, Dominica has an offshore medical education sector. In order to diversify the island's economy, the government is also attempting to foster an offshore financial industry and plans to sign agreements with the private sector to develop geothermal energy resources. In 2003, the government began a comprehensive restructuring of the economy - including the elimination of price controls, privatization of the state banana company, and tax increases - to address an economic and financial crisis and to meet IMF requirements. In 2009 and 2013, the economy contracted as a result of the global recession; growth remains anemic. Although public debt levels continue to exceed pre-recession levels, the debt burden declined from 78% of GDP in 2011 to approximately 70% in 2012.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $812 million (2016 est.) $799.6 million (2015 est.) $814 million (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $524 million (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2016 est.) -1.8% (2015 est.) 4.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,400 (2016 est.) $11,300 (2015 est.) $11,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 4.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 7.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 4.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 70.5%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 10.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 70.5%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 10.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangos, root crops, coconuts, cocoa note: forest and fishery potential not exploited
Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 25,000 (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 40%
industry: 32%
services: 28% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: 23% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 29% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $148.1 million
expenditures: $148.1 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 70% of GDP (2012 est.) 78% of GDP (2009 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2016 est.) -0.8% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$69 million (2016 est.) -$48 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $38.3 million (2016 est.) $35.2 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
Exports - partners: Japan 38.1%, Jamaica 19%, Antigua and Barbuda 10.4%, Trinidad and Tobago 6.2%, St. Lucia 4.8%, St. Kitts and Nevis 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $186.5 million (2016 est.) $182.9 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals
Imports - partners: Japan 42%, Trinidad and Tobago 17%, US 11.9%, China 6% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $100 million (31 December 2016 est.) $126.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $288.6 million (31 December 2016 est.) $275.4 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2016 est.) 2.7 (2015 est.) 2.7 (2014 est.) 2.7 (2013 est.) 2.7 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 97 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 90.21 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 33,200 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 60.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 18.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 21.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 978.2 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 100,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 77,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fully automatic network

domestic: fixed-line connections continued to decline slowly with the two active operators providing about 20 fixed-line connections per 100 persons; subscribership among the three mobile-cellular providers is about 105 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-767; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cables providing connectivity to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Tri (2015)
Broadcast media: no terrestrial TV service available; subscription cable TV provider offers some locally produced programming plus channels from the US, Latin America, and the Caribbean; state-operated radio broadcasts on 6 stations; privately owned radio broadcasts on ab (2007)
Internet country code: .dm
Internet users: total: 50,000 percent of population: 67.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 1,512 km
paved: 762 km
unpaved: 750 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 43

by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 22, chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 32 (Australia 1, Estonia 6, Germany 5, Greece 4, India 2, Latvia 2, Norway 1, Russia 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria 4, Turkey 1, Ukraine 1)

registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Portsmouth, Roseau
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 Military
Military branches: no regular military forces; Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Dominica is the only Caribbean state to challenge Venezuela's sovereignty claim over Aves Island and joins the other island nations in challenging whether the feature sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ and continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; minor cannabis producer (2008)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

 

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