Georgia Population: 4,928,052

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 History
The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003, touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions. Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Georgian Dream's Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. GARIBASHVILI was replaced by Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI in December 2015. KVIRIKASHVILI will remain Prime Minister following Georgian Dream’s success in the October 2016 parliamentary elections, where the party won a constitutional majority. These changes in leadership represent unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.

 Geography
Strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E
Area: total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,814 km border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km
Coastline: 310 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Land use: agricultural land: 35.5% arable land 5.8%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 27.9% forest: 39.4%
other: 25.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 4,330 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian
Ethnic groups: Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidis, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)
Languages: Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1% note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia (2014 est.)
Religions: Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)
Population: 4,928,052 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.91% (male 463,526/female 419,334)
15-24 years: 12.61% (male 326,675/female 294,912)
25-54 years: 40.93% (male 980,024/female 1,037,044)
55-64 years: 12.77% (male 282,067/female 347,287)
65 years and over: 15.77% (male 304,668/female 472,515) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.7%
youth dependency ratio: 25.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 20.4%
potential support ratio: 4.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 38 years
male: 35.1 years
female: 40.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.05% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 53.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: TBILISI (capital) 1.147 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 24.4 note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.2 years male: 72.1 years
female: 80.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 53.4% note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2010)
Health expenditures: 7.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 4.27 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 95.2% of population
rural: 75.9% of population
total: 86.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4.8% of population
rural: 24.1% of population
total: 13.7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.39% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.1% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.1% (2009)
Education expenditures: 2% of GDP (2012)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 35.6% male: 35.3%
female: 36.4% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation "gurgan" meaning "Land of the wolves"; the native name "Sak'art'velo" means "Land of the Kartvelians" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Tbilisi
geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika) regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti city: Tbilisi autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi) note 1: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses note 2: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia
Independence: 9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (since 17 November 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI (since 30 December 2015); First Deputy Prime Minister Dimitry KUMSISHVILI

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president

election results: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (Georgian Dream) 62.1%, Davit BAKRADZE (UNM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE 10.2%, other 6%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 73 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 October and 30 October 2016 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.7%, UNM 27.1%, Alliance of Patriots 5%, other 19.2%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 115, UNM 27, Alliance of Patriots 6, IWSG 1, independent 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Parliament; judges serve not less than 10-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president following candidate selection by the Justice Council of Georgia, a 12-member consultative body of high-level judges, and presidential and parliamentary appointees; judges appointed for 10-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI] Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI] Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE] National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA] Free Democrats (FD) [Tamar KEKENADZE] Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE] State for the People Party [formerly Paata BURCHULADZE ] United Democratic Movement [Nino BURJANADZE] United National Movement or UNM [Davit BAKRADZE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
International organization participation: ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)

note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas "Abesalom da Eteri" and "Daisi" was adopted
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Davit BAKRADZE (since November 2016)
chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ian C. KELLY (since 17 September 2015)
embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131
mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10
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 Economy
Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its energy needs. Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Kars-Akhalkalaki railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit point for gas, oil, and other goods. The expansion of the South Caucasus pipeline, as part of the Shah Deniz II Southern Gas Corridor project, will result in a $2 billion foreign investment in Georgia, the largest ever in the country. Gas from Shah Deniz II is expected to begin flowing in 2019. Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sunk to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in 2010-13, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment has also remained high. The country is pinning its hopes for renewed growth on a determined effort to continue to liberalize the economy by reducing regulation, taxes, and corruption in order to attract foreign investment, with a focus on hydropower, agriculture, tourism, and textiles production. Georgia has historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, improved tax administration, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for its anti-corruption efforts. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending, strengthening anti-trust policy, and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. The government published its 2020 Economic Development Strategy in early 2014 and former Prime Minister Bidzina IVANISHVILI launched the Georgian Co-Investment Fund, a $6 billion private equity fund that will invest in tourism, agriculture, logistics, energy, infrastructure, and manufacturing. In mid-2014, Georgia signed an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $37.38 billion (2016 est.) $36.15 billion (2015 est.) $35.17 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $14.46 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (2016 est.) 2.8% (2015 est.) 4.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $10,100 (2016 est.) $9,700 (2015 est.) $9,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 21.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 19.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.9%
government consumption: 16%
investment in fixed capital: 26.8%
investment in inventories: 3.8%
exports of goods and services: 38.1%
imports of goods and services: -51.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.9%
government consumption: 16%
investment in fixed capital: 26.8%
investment in inventories: 3.8%
exports of goods and services: 38.1%
imports of goods and services: -51.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
Industries: steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
Industrial production growth rate: 1.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.959 million (2011 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 55.6%
industry: 8.9%
services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 12.1% (2016 est.) 12% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9.2% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46 (2011) 37.1 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $4.266 billion
expenditures: $4.541 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 42.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 41.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2016 est.) 4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.75 billion (2016 est.) -$1.641 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.926 billion (2016 est.) $3.043 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores
Exports - partners: Azerbaijan 10.9%, Bulgaria 9.7%, Turkey 8.4%, Armenia 8.2%, Russia 7.4%, China 5.7%, US 4.7%, Uzbekistan 4.4% (2015)
Imports: $6.803 billion (2016 est.) $7.363 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners: Turkey 17.2%, Russia 8.1%, China 7.6%, Azerbaijan 7%, Ireland 5.9%, Ukraine 5.9%, Germany 5.6% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.855 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.521 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $13.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $13.31 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $13.68 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $12.64 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.933 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.773 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.) $795.7 million (31 December 2011 est.) $1.06 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: laris (GEL) per US dollar - 2.18 (2016 est.) 2.2694 (2015 est.) 2.2694 (2014 est.) 1.7657 (2013 est.) 1.65 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 4.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 39.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 60.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 799.5 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 35 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 20,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 257.6 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 22,830 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 5.663 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.18 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.18 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 5.551 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country

domestic: cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi

international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are ava (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 public broadcaster in Tbilisi, 1 state-owned broadcaster in Ajaria Autonomous Republic; 8 privately owned TV stations; state-run public broadcaster operates 2 TV stations; dozens of cable TV operators, several major commercial TV stations, and several d (2012)
Internet country code: .ge
Internet users: total: 2.227 million percent of population: 45.2% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 22 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,596 km; oil 1,175 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,363 km
broad gauge: 1,326 km 1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 19,109 km
paved: 19,109 km (includes 69 km of expressways) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 142

by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 114, chemical tanker 1, container 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 2

foreign-owned: 95 (Bulgaria 1, China 10, Egypt 7, Hong Kong 3, Israel 1, Italy 2, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Romania 7, Russia 6, Syria 24, Turkey 14, UAE 2, UK 5, Ukraine 10, US 1)

registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i
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 Military
Military branches: Georgian Armed Forces: Land Forces (include Air and Air Defense Forces); separatist Abkhazia Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Air Forces; separatist South Ossetia Armed Forces note: Georgian naval forces have been incorporated into the Coast Guard, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs rather than the Ministry of Defense (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18 to 34 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures: 2.34% of GDP (2015) 2.26% of GDP (2014) 2.7% of GDP (2013) 2.88% of GDP (2012) 3.25% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 268,416 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2015)
stateless persons: 627 (2015)
Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia
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