Guinea Population: 12,093,349

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 History
Guinea is at a turning point after decades of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Guinea held its first free and competitive democratic presidential and legislative elections in 2010 and 2013 respectively, and in October 2015 held a second consecutive presidential election. Alpha CONDE was reelected to a second five-year term as president in 2015, and the National Assembly was seated in January 2014. CONDE's first cabinet is the first all-civilian government in Guinea. Previously, Sekou TOURE ruled the country as president from independence to his death in 1984. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after TOURE's death. Gen. CONTE organized and won presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003, though all the polls were rigged. Upon CONTE's death in December 2008, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and exiled to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE paved the way for Guinea's transition to a fledgling democracy.

 Geography
The Niger and its important tributary the Milo River have their sources in the Guinean highlands
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Geographic coordinates: 11 00 N, 10 00 W
Area: total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,717 sq km
water: 140 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 4,046 km border countries (6): Cote d'Ivoire 816 km, Guinea-Bissau 421 km, Liberia 590 km, Mali 1,062 km, Senegal 363 km, Sierra Leone 794 km
Coastline: 320 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
Land use: agricultural land: 58.1% arable land 11.8%; permanent crops 2.8%; permanent pasture 43.5% forest: 26.5%
other: 15.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 950 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; inadequate potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groups: Fulani (Peul) 33.9%, Malinke 31.1%, Soussou 19.1%, Guerze 6%, Kissi 4.7%, Toma 2.6%, other/no answer 2.7% (2012 est.)
Languages: French (official) note: each ethnic group has its own language
Religions: Muslim 86.7%, Christian 8.9%, animist/other/none 4.4% (2012 est.)
Population: 12,093,349 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.7% (male 2,547,037/female 2,495,495)
15-24 years: 19.67% (male 1,200,618/female 1,177,633)
25-54 years: 30.52% (male 1,851,200/female 1,839,952)
55-64 years: 4.46% (male 258,455/female 281,497)
65 years and over: 3.65% (male 195,054/female 246,408) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 83.8%
youth dependency ratio: 78.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6%
potential support ratio: 17.8% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.8 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.62% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 35.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 37.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.82% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: CONAKRY (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 679 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 51.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.6 years male: 59 years
female: 62.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.82 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 5.6% (2012)
Health expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
Hospital bed density: 0.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92.7% of population
rural: 67.4% of population
total: 76.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 7.3% of population
rural: 32.6% of population
total: 23.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 34.1% of population
rural: 11.8% of population
total: 20.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 65.9% of population
rural: 88.2% of population
total: 79.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.56% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 116,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 5.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 18.7% (2012)
Education expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 30.4%
male: 38.1%
female: 22.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 1% male: 1.5%
female: 0.6% (2012 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea note: the country is named after the Guinea region of West Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea and stretches north to the Sahel
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 regions administrative and 1 gouvenorat*; Boke, Conakry*, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labe, Mamou, N'Zerekore
Independence: 2 October 1958 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Constitution: previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the French model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Alpha CONDE (since 21 December 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Mamady YOULA (since 26 December 2015); Prime Minister Mohamed Said FOFANA (since 24 December 2010) resigned 12/23/15

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 October 2015 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Alpha CONDE reelected president; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 57.8%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 31.4%, other 10.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; 76 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote and 38 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 September 2013 (next scheduled for 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPG 53, UFDG 37, UFR 10, PEDN 2, UPG 2, other parties 10
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into Administrative Chamber and Civil, Penal, and Social Chamber; court consists of the first president, 2 chamber presidents, at least 4 councillors, the solicitor general and NA deputies); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court first president appointed by the national president after consultation with the National Assembly; other members appointed by presidential decree; members serve until age 65; Constitutional Court member appointments - 2 by the National Assembly and the president of the republic, 3 experienced judges designated by their peers, 1 experienced lawyer, 1 university professor with expertise in public law designated by peers, and 2 experienced representatives of the Independent National Institution of Human Rights; members serve single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: includes Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; courts of first instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; High Court of Justice or Cour d'Assises; labor court; military tribunal; justices of the peace; specialized courts
Political parties and leaders: National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE] Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE] Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE] Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO] Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE] note: listed are the five most popular parties as of December 2015
Political pressure groups and leaders: National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG, Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG) Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): national colors: red, yellow, green
National anthem: name: "Liberte" (Liberty)
lyrics/music: unknown/Fodeba KEITA

note: adopted 1958
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mamady CONDE (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 986-3800
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis B. HANKINS (since December 2015)
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
mailing address: P.O. Box 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 65-10-40-00
FAX: [224] 65-10-42-97
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 Economy
Guinea is a poor country of approximately 11.7 million people that possesses the world's largest reserves of bauxite and largest untapped high-grade iron ore reserves (Simandou), as well as gold and diamonds. In addition, Guinea has fertile soil, ample rainfall, and is the source of several West African rivers, including the Senegal, Niger, and Gambia. Guinea's hydro potential is enormous and the country could be a major exporter of electricity. The country also has tremendous agriculture potential. Gold, bauxite, and diamonds are Guinea’s main mineral exports. International investors have shown interest in Guinea's unexplored mineral reserves, which have the potential to propel Guinea's future growth. Following the death of long-term President Lansana CONTE in 2008 and the coup that followed, international donors, including the G-8, the IMF, and the World Bank, significantly curtailed their development programs in Guinea. However, the IMF approved a new 3-year Extended Credit Facility arrangement in 2012, following the December 2010 presidential elections. In September 2012, Guinea achieved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries completion point status. Future access to international assistance and investment will depend on the government’s ability to be transparent, combat corruption, reform its banking system, improve its business environment, and build infrastructure. In April 2013, the government amended its mining code to reduce taxes and royalties. In 2014, Guinea also complied with requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative by publishing its mining contracts and was found to be compliant. The biggest threats to Guinea’s economy are political instability, a reintroduction on of the Ebola virus epidemic, and low international commodity prices. Rising international donor support and reduced government investment spending will lessen fiscal strains created by the Ebola virus epidemic, but economic recovery will be a long process while the government continues efforts to prevent an outbreak of the disease. The economic toll of Ebola virus epidemic on the Guinean economy is considerable. Ebola stalled promising economic growth in 2014-15, and the economy will continue to stagnate in 2016. Several projects have stalled, such as offshore oil exploration and the giant Simandou iron ore project. The 240 megawatt Kaleta Dam, which was inaugurated in September 2015, has expanded access to electricity for residents of Conakry. Although the recent political stability has brought renewed interest in Guinea from the private sector, an enduring legacy of corruption, inefficiency, and lack of government transparency, combined with fears of Ebola virus, continue to undermine Guinea's economic viability. Successive governments have failed to address the country's crumbling infrastructure, which is needed for economic development. Guinea suffers from chronic electricity shortages; poor roads, rail lines and bridges; and a lack of access to clean water - all of which continue to plague economic development. The present government, led by President Alpha CONDE, is working to create an economy to attract foreign investment and hopes to have greater participation from western countries and firms in Guinea's economic development.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $16.08 billion (2016 est.) $15.49 billion (2015 est.) $15.47 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $6.754 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2016 est.) 0.1% (2015 est.) 1.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,300 (2016 est.) $1,300 (2015 est.) $1,300 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 3.7% of GDP (2016 est.) -8.5% of GDP (2015 est.) -8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 97.2%
government consumption: 8.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -42.4% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 97.2%
government consumption: 8.4%
investment in fixed capital: 13.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 23.5%
imports of goods and services: -42.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, coffee, pineapples, mangoes, palm kernels, cocoa, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, potatoes, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
Industries: bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 5.392 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 76% industry and
services: 24% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 47% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.3% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.4 (2007) 40.3 (1994)
Budget: revenues: $1.421 billion
expenditures: $1.857 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.9% (2016 est.) 8.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$893 million (2016 est.) -$1.281 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $1.705 billion (2016 est.) $1.611 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: bauxite, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
Exports - partners: India 22.5%, Spain 8.2%, Ireland 7.3%, Germany 6.2%, Belgium 5.5%, Ukraine 5.3%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $2.185 billion (2016 est.) $2.173 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 20.4%, Netherlands 5.4%, India 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $243.6 million (31 December 2016 est.) $233.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $1.332 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.329 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $67.3 million (31 December 2016 est.) $67.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Guinean francs (GNF) per US dollar - 8,230 (2016 est.) 7,485.5 (2015 est.) 7,485.5 (2014 est.) 7,014.1 (2013 est.) 6,986 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 500,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 67.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 32.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 16,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 16,130 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 10.764 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system

domestic: Conakry reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and exceeds 90 per 100 persons

international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry (2011)
Internet country code: .gn
Internet users: total: 554,000 percent of population: 4.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 16 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 662 km

narrow gauge: 662 km 1.000-m gauge (20014)
Roadways: total 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
Waterways: 1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft in the northern part of the Niger River system) (2011)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Conakry, Kamsar
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 Military
Military branches: National Armed Forces: Army, Guinean Navy (Armee de Mer or Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Guinean Air Force (Force Aerienne de Guinee) (2009)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa Rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 7,354 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2016)
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