Peru Population: 30,741,062

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 History
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016.

 Geography
Shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Area: total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Size comparison: almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
Land Boundaries: total: 7,062 km border countries (5): Bolivia 1,212 km, Brazil 2,659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1,494 km, Ecuador 1,529 km
Coastline: 2,414 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use: agricultural land: 18.8% arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 1.1%; permanent pasture 14.6% forest: 53%
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 25,800 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
Current Environment Issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Languages: Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)
Population: 30,741,062 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.62% (male 4,164,681/female 4,019,436)
15-24 years: 18.63% (male 2,868,743/female 2,859,476)
25-54 years: 39.91% (male 5,892,065/female 6,377,681)
55-64 years: 7.62% (male 1,135,938/female 1,205,579)
65 years and over: 7.21% (male 1,049,409/female 1,168,054) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 53.2%
youth dependency ratio: 42.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5%
potential support ratio: 9.6% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 27.7 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.96% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 78.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.69% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LIMA (capital) 9.897 million; Arequipa 850,000; Trujillo 798,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.2 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 19 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.7 years male: 71.7 years
female: 75.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 75.5% (2012)
Health expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.13 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 1.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 82.5% of population
rural: 53.2% of population
total: 76.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population
rural: 46.8% of population
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.33% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 66,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 20.4% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.1% (2014)
Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.5%
male: 97.3%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 8.8% male: 8.3%
female: 9.3% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region
Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Executive branch: chief of state: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016); First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 28 July 2016); Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 28 July 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)

election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president; first round election results from 10 April 2016: percent of vote - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 39.85%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 21%, Veronika MENDOZA 18.82%, Alfredo BARNECHEA 6.97%, Alan GARCIA 5.82%; second round election results from 5 June 2016: percent of vote - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 49.9%

note: Prime Minister Fernando ZAVALA Lombardi (since 28 July 2016) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - Fuerza Popular 36.34%, PPK 16.47%, Frente Amplio 13.94%, APP 9.23%; APRA 8.31%; AP 7.20%, other 8.51%; seats by party - Fuerza Popular 71, PPK 20, Frente Amplio 20, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors) judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices appointed for life or until age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta] Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente] Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi] National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio] Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique] Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA) Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA] Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI] Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen] Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Political pressure groups and leaders: General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN] Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
International organization participation: APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO

note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Brian A. NICHOLS (since 30 June 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
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 Economy
Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and third largest producer of copper. The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1% to 3%. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for almost 60% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped in 2014 and 2015, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 28 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector. Peru's free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with Honduras, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $409.9 billion (2016 est.) $395 billion (2015 est.) $382.5 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $180.3 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2016 est.) 3.3% (2015 est.) 2.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,000 (2016 est.) $12,700 (2015 est.) $12,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 20.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 22.3%
imports of goods and services: -23.6% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.5%
investment in inventories: 1.4%
exports of goods and services: 22.3%
imports of goods and services: -23.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, mari
Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery,
Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 17.12 million note: individuals older than 14 years of age (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 5.9% (2016 est.) 5.2% (2015 est.) note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
Population below poverty line: 25.8% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.3 (2012) 51 (2005)
Budget: revenues: $60.84 billion
expenditures: $66.46 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 33.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 26.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (2016 est.) 3.5% (2015 est.) note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
Current account balance: -$6.801 billion (2016 est.) -$8.374 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $38.09 billion (2016 est.) $34.16 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, allo
Exports - partners: China 22.1%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 8.1%, Canada 7% (2015)
Imports: $38.35 billion (2016 est.) $36.99 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
Imports - partners: China 22.7%, US 20.7%, Brazil 5.1%, Mexico 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $60.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $61.59 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $69.78 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $67.87 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $94.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $86.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $2.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.815 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar - 3.363 (2016 est.) 3.185 (2015 est.) 3.185 (2014 est.) 2.8383 (2013 est.) 2.64 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 44 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 39 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 13 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5 million kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 12 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 35.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 58,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 14,770 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 84,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 700 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 208,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 229,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 103,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 75,330 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.9 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 7.66 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 5.24 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 414.1 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 41 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 34.236 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 110 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)
Internet country code: .pe
Internet users: total: 12.452 million percent of population: 40.9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 191 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 59
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 132

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)
Railways: total: 1,854.4 km standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 140,672 km
(18,699 km paved)

note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)
Waterways: 8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 22

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13

foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)
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 Military
Military branches: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP; includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.28% of GDP (2012) 1.15% of GDP (2011) 1.28% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2015)
Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
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