Puerto Rico Population: 3,674,209

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 History
Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following Christopher COLUMBUS' second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917. Popularly-elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose not to alter the existing political status with the US, but the results of a 2012 vote left open the possibility of American statehood.

 Geography
Important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 66 30 W
Area: total: 13,790 sq km
land: 8,870 sq km
water: 4,921 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 501 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m
Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil
Land use: arable land: 6.76%
permanent crops: 4.51%
other: 88.73% (2011)
Irrigated land: 220.4 sq km (2005)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; hurricanes
Current Environment Issues: erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages
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 People
Nationality: noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican
Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish origin) 76.2%, black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007)
Languages: Spanish, English
Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%
Population: 3,674,209 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.4% (male 346,794/female 330,221)
15-24 years: 14.6% (male 272,689/female 264,761)
25-54 years: 38.6% (male 675,854/female 743,449)
55-64 years: 11.9% (male 198,952/female 239,538)
65 years and over: 16.4% (male 261,345/female 340,606) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 29.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 20.9 %
potential support ratio: 4.8 (2013)
Median age: total: 38.2 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 40 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.47% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 11.28 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -7.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 99% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SAN JUAN (capital) 2.73 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.07 years
male: 75.56 years
female: 82.79 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 84.1% note: percent of women aged 18-44 (2002)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,397 (1997)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.3%
male: 89.7%
female: 90.9% (2011 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 29.9%
male: 33.3%
female: 24.5% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico
Government type: commonwealth
Capital: name: San Juan
geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 66 07 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco
Independence: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
National holiday: US Independence Day, 4 July (1776); Puerto Rico Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)
Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952
Legal system: civil law system based on the Spanish civil code and within the framework of the US federal system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)

head of government: Governor Alejandro GARCIA Padilla (since 2 January 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Puerto Rico, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)

election results: Alejandro GARCIA Padilla elected governor with 48.2% of the vote
Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (at least 27 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (51 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016); House of Representatives - last held on 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPD 18, PNP 8, PIP 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPD 28, PNP 23 note: Puerto Rico elects, by popular vote, a resident commissioner to serve a four-year term as a nonvoting representative in the US House of Representatives; aside from not voting on the House floor, he enjoys all the rights of a member of Congress; elections last held 6 November 2012 (next to be held in November 2016); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNP 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 associate judges) note - the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Judiciary Act of 2003 reformed the judicial system judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate; judges serve until compulsory retirement at age 75

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; First Instance Court comprised of superior and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS] National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Dr. Tiody FERRE] New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO] (pro-US statehood) Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA] (pro-commonwealth) Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros) note: the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UNWTO (associate), UPU
National symbol(s): Puerto Rican spindalis (bird); coqui (frog)
National anthem: name: "La Borinquena" (The Puerto Rican)
lyrics/music: Manuel Fernandez JUNCOS/Felix Astol ARTES

note: music adopted 1952, lyrics adopted 1977; the local anthem's name is a reference to the indigenous name of the island, Borinquen; the music was originally composed as a dance in 1867 and gained popularity in the early 20th century; there is some evidence that the music was written by Francisco RAMIREZ; as a commonwealth of the United States, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US with commonwealth status)
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 Economy
Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region, however, growth has been negative for the past four years, and unemployment rose to nearly 16% in 2011. The industrial sector has surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Mainland US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income with estimated arrivals of more than 3.6 million tourists in 2008. Closing the budget deficit while restoring economic growth and employment remain the central concerns of the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $64.84 billion (2010 est.) $68.84 billion (2009 est.) $71.51 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $93.52 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -5.8% (2010 est.) -3.7% (2009 est.) -2.8% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $16,300 (2010 est.) $17,400 (2009 est.) $18,100 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 94.5%
government consumption: 16.4%
investment in fixed capital: 16.2%
exports of goods and services: 121.9%
imports of goods and services: -148.9% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 94.5%
government consumption: 16.4%
investment in fixed capital: 16.2%
exports of goods and services: 121.9%
imports of goods and services: -148.9% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock products, chickens
Industries: pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 1.286 million (March 2012)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 19%
services: 79% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 16% (2011 est.) 12% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $6.7 billion
expenditures: $9.6 billion (FY99/00)
Taxes and other revenues: 7.2% of GDP (FY99/00)
Public debt: 104.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 91.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2012 est.) 2.9% (2011 est.)
Exports: $58.91 billion (2012 est.) $64.88 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: chemicals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment
Imports: $46.57 billion (2012 est.) $44.67 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
Debt - external: $56.82 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $52.98 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 20.71 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 70
Electricity - consumption: 19.26 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.515 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 97.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 2.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 40,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 37,450 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 151,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 8,440 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 149,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 768.9 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 768.9 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 30.86 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 826,100 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 87
Cellular Phones in use: 3.108 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability

domestic: digital telephone system; mobile-cellular services

international: country code - 1-787, 939; submarine cables provide connectivity to the US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2011)
Broadcast media: more than 30 TV stations operating; cable TV subscription services are available; roughly 125 radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .pr
Internet hosts: 469 (2012)
Internet users: 1 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 29 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 119
Airports (paved runways): total 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 10 (2013)
Roadways: total 26,670 km
paved: 25,337 km (includes 427 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,333 km (2008)
Ports and terminals: Ensenada Honda, Mayaguez, Playa de Guayanilla, Playa de Ponce, San Juan
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 700,443
females age 16-49: 786,035 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 30,517
female: 29,010 (2010 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage to Puerto Rico each year looking for work
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