Slovenia Population: 1,978,029

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 History
The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004; it joined the euro zone and the Schengen zone in 2007.

 Geography
Despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
Location: south Central Europe, Julian Alps between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates: 46 07 N, 14 49 E
Area: total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 1,211 km border countries (4): Austria 299 km, Croatia 600 km, Hungary 94 km, Italy 218 km
Coastline: 46.6 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain: a short southwestern coastal strip of Karst topography on the Adriatic; an alpine mountain region lies adjacent to Italy and Austria in the north; mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: lignite, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Land use: agricultural land: 22.8% arable land 8.4%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 13.1% forest: 62.3%
other: 14.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 60 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding; earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage from urban air pollution and resulting acid rain
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups: Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Languages: Slovenian (official) 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%, Italian (official, only in municipalities where Italian national communities reside), Hungarian (official, only in municipalities where Hungarian national communities reside) (2002 census)
Religions: Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Population: 1,978,029 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.35% (male 136,114/female 127,904)
15-24 years: 9.58% (male 97,191/female 92,369)
25-54 years: 43.3% (male 432,824/female 423,708)
55-64 years: 14.82% (male 144,160/female 148,903)
65 years and over: 18.95% (male 152,770/female 222,086) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 48.7%
youth dependency ratio: 22%
elderly dependency ratio: 26.7%
potential support ratio: 3.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 44.1 years
male: 42.5 years
female: 45.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.29% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 8.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 49.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.08% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LJUBLJANA (capital) 279,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 9 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.2 years male: 74.6 years
female: 82 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 9.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.54 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 4.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.4% of population
total: 99.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.6% of population
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.1% of population
rural: 99.1% of population
total: 99.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.9% of population
rural: 0.9% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.08% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 900 (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (2014 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.4% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 17 years male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 20.2% male: 19.4%
female: 21.3% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
etymology: related to the Slavic autonym (self-designation) "Slovenin," a derivation from "slovo" (word), denoting "people who speak (the same language)" (i.e., people who understand each other)
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 201 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities (mestne obcine, singular - mestna obcina) municipalities: Ajdovscina, Ankaran, Apace, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Cirkulane, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik/Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gorje, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola/Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Kosanjevica na Krki, Kostel, Kozje, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava/Lendva, Litija, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Log-Dragomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Makole, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Mokronog-Trebelno, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran/Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Poljcane, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Recica ob Savinji, Rence-Vogrsko, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogaska Slatina, Rogasovci, Rogatec, Ruse, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sevnica, Sezana, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sredisce ob Dravi, Starse, Straza, Sveta Ana, Sveta Trojica v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij ob Scavnici, Sveti Jurij v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Tomaz, Salovci, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur, Sentrupert, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smarjeske Toplice, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sostanj, Store, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zrece, Zuzemberk urban municipalities: Celje, Koper-Capodistria, Kranj, Ljubljana, Maribor, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Novo Mesto, Ptuj, Slovenj Gradec, Velenje
Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution: history: previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by Parliament 23 December 1991 amendments: proposed by at least 20 National Assembly members, by the government, or by petition of at least 30,000 voters; passage of amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote by Assembly members; referendum required if agreed upon by at least 30 Assembly members; passage in a referendum requires a simple majority vote if a majority of eligible voters participated; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Miro CERAR (since 18 September 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November 2012 with a runoff on 2 December 2012 (next to be held in 2017); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR (SD) 67.4%, Danilo TURK (independent) 32.6%; note - a snap election was held in July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK in May 2014, Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve 5-year terms) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 88 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 2 directly elected in special constituencies for Italian and Hungarian minorities by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - the National Council is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers

elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 July 2014 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - SMC 34.6%, SDS 20.7%, DeSUS 10.2%, ZL 6%, SD 6%, NSi 5.6%, ZaAB 4.3%, other 12.6%; seats by party - SMC 36, SDS 21, DeSUS 10, ZL 6, SD 6, NSi, 5, ZaAB 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 37 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, labor and social security, administrative, and registry departments); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by the National Assembly upon the proposal of the Minister of Justice based on the opinions of the Judicial Council, an 11-member independent body elected by the National Assembly from proposals submitted by the president, attorneys, law universities, and sitting judges; other Supreme Court judges elected by the National Assembly from candidates proposed by the Judicial Council; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly from nominations by the president of the republic; Constitutional Court president selected from among their own for a 3-year term; other judges elected for single 9-year terms

subordinate courts: county, district, regional, and high courts; specialized labor-related and social courts; Court of Audit; Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB [Alenka BRATUSEK] Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC] Modern Center Party or SMC [Miro CERAR] New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK] Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA] Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN] United Left or ZL (collective leadership)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Catholic Church other: various trade and public sector employee unions
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Mount Triglav; national colors: white, blue, red
National anthem: name: "Zdravljica" (A Toast)
lyrics/music: France PRESEREN/Stanko PREMRL

note: adopted 1989; originally written in 1848; the full poem, whose seventh verse is used as the anthem, speaks of pan-Slavic nationalism
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bozo CERAR (since 6 September 2013)
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Brent Robert HARTLEY (since 12 February 2015)
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
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 Economy
With excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe, Slovenia has one of the highest per capita GDPs in Central Europe, despite having suffered a protracted recession in 2008-2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis. Slovenia became the first 2004 EU entrant to adopt the euro (on 1 January 2007) and has experienced one of the most stable political transitions in Central and Southeastern Europe. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the process for joining the OECD; it became a member in 2012. However, long-delayed privatizations, particularly within Slovenia’s largely state-owned and increasingly indebted banking sector, have fueled investor concerns since 2012 that the country would need EU-IMF financial assistance. In 2013, the European Commission granted Slovenia permission to begin recapitalizing ailing lenders and transferring their nonperforming assets into a “bad bank” established to restore bank balance sheets. Export-led growth fueled by demand in larger European markets pushed GDP growth to 3.0% in 2014, while stubbornly-high unemployment fell slightly to 12%. Prime Minister CERAR’s government took office in September 2014, pledging to press ahead with commitments to privatize a select group of state-run companies, rationalize public spending, and further stabilize the banking sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $66.13 billion (2016 est.) $64.62 billion (2015 est.) $63.15 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $44.12 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2016 est.) 2.3% (2015 est.) 3.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $32,000 (2016 est.) $31,300 (2015 est.) $30,600 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 26.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 25.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 26% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 51.7%
government consumption: 18.6%
investment in fixed capital: 19%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 79.7%
imports of goods and services: -69.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 51.7%
government consumption: 18.6%
investment in fixed capital: 19%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 79.7%
imports of goods and services: -69.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: hops, wheat, coffee, corn, apples, pears; cattle, sheep, poultry
Industries: ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 918,700 (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 8.3%
industry: 30.8%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.6% (2016 est.) 12.3% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 13.5% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 21.1% (2012)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 23.7 (2012) 23.8 (2005)
Budget: revenues: $19.32 billion
expenditures: $20.51 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 43.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 81.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 83.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding f
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.2% (2016 est.) -0.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $3.398 billion (2016 est.) $2.217 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $27.2 billion (2016 est.) $26.67 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners: Germany 19.1%, Italy 10.6%, Austria 8%, Croatia 6.8%, Slovakia 4.7%, Hungary 4.4%, France 4.2% (2015)
Imports: $25.52 billion (2016 est.) $25.01 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners: Germany 16.5%, Italy 13.6%, Austria 10.2%, China 5.5%, Croatia 5.1%, Turkey 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $851.3 million (31 December 2016 est.) $856.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $51.65 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $51.05 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $15.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $14.49 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $8.093 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.843 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $6.035 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $7.519 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $7.128 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.7752 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 7.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.5 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 34.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 33.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 29.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 5 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 49,680 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 23,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 79,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 3 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 769 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 766 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 13 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 2.354 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 155 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 386 (2015)
Broadcast media: public TV broadcaster, Radiotelevizija Slovenija (RTV), operates a system of national and regional TV stations; 35 domestic commercial TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 60% of households are connected to multi-channel cable (2007)
Internet country code: .si
Internet users: total: 1.45 million percent of population: 73.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 16 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 844 km; oil 5 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 38,985 km
paved: 38,985 km (includes 769 km of expressways) (2012)
Waterways: (some transport on the Drava River) (2012)
Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 24 (Cyprus 5, Liberia 7, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Koper
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 Military
Military branches: Slovenian Armed Forces (Slovenska Vojska, SV): Forces Command (with ground units, naval element, air and air defense brigade); Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.97% of GDP (2015) 1% of GDP (2014) 1.05% of GDP (2013) 1.18% of GDP (2012) 1.32% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 4 (2015) note: 477,791 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (2015 - March 2016)
Illicit drugs: minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals
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